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The YP11mu strain of a plaque-selected canine herpesvirus (CHV) encoded a smaller molecular weight (MW) of gD than those of other strains including YP2 strain (Xuan et al., 1990). When nucleotide sequence of the mutated gD of YP11mu strain (gD(YP11mu)) was compared with that of gDs of other CHV strains, gD(YP11mu) lacked 12 nucleotides encoding 4 amino acids, NKTI, including one predicted potential N-linked glycosylation site and no other change was found in other regions. When the gD(YP11mu) and gD of YP2 strain (gD(YP2)) expressed in COS-7 and insect (Spodoptera frugiperda; Sf9) cells were compared each other, both gDs reacted with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against CHV gD by indirect immunofluorescence analysis and the gD(YP11mu) possessed an MW of approximately 47-51 and 39-44 kDa in COS-7 and Sf9 cells, respectively, which were smaller than the expressed gD(YP2) (approximately 51-55 and 41-46 kDa, respectively) by immunoblot analysis. After treatment with tunicamycin, the MW of both gDs in Sf9 cells became approximately 37 kDa. When hemagglutination (HA) test using canine red blood cells (RBC) were carried out, lysates of Sf9 cells expressing CHV gDs agglutinated canine RBC. Serum from mice inoculated with lysates of Sf9 cells expressing the gDs possessed a high titer of virus-neutralizing (VN) activities against CHV. These results indicated that the deletion of 4 amino acids possessing approximately 4 kDa of glyco-chain from gD of CHV in mammalian cells does not affect HA activity and VN antibody-inducing activity and that this deletion of gD(YP11mu) might be a good selective marker for development of recombinant viruses as a live vaccine.
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Weight gain in young women suggests that childbearing may be an important contributor to the development of obesity in women. Depressive symptoms can interfere with resumption of normal activity levels following childbirth or with the initiation of or adherence to physical activity programs essential for losing pregnancy weight. Depression symptoms may function directly to promote weight gain through a physiologic mechanism. Obesity and its related insulin resistance may contribute to depressed mood physiologically. Although physical activity has well-established beneficial effects on weight management and depression, women tend to under participate in physical activity during childbearing years. Further, the mechanisms underpinning the interplay of overweight, obesity, physical activity, depression, and inflammatory processes are not clearly explained. This report describes the theoretical rationale, design considerations, and cultural relevance for "Madres para la Salud" [Mothers for Health]. Madres para la Salud is a 12 month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific intervention using "bouts" of physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. The significance and innovation of Madres para la Salud includes use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, specification and cultural relevance of a social support intervention, use of a Promotora model to incorporate cultural approaches, use of objective measures of physical activity in post partum Latinas women, and the examination of biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular risk related to physical activity behaviors in postpartum Latinas. Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.